Calendars, Dictionaries

The Roman Calendar Brief history of the Roman calendar, with separate page on the Julian calendar

English Calendar Converts English regnal dates and the dates of seven major movable feasts to month-day-year dates.

Medieval Calendar Calculator

A Medieval English Calendar Calendar calculator by historical years (1001-1600) and by English regnal years (William I-Elizabeth I, 1066-1603). Includes the date of Easter for each year, and also Roman dates for each day of each month (Kalends, Nones and Ides).

Calendar for any year Enter the country and the year and this online calendar calculator (which is at the website Enter the country and the year and this online calendar calculator (which is at the website will display the calendar, which includes the phases of the moon. For calendars of the current year and upcoming years, and for a world clock, see also

The Medieval Year A description of the yearly cycle of religious events, what they meant, and how they were celebrated in the 15th century.

Oxford English Dictionary Online version of the OED, with regular updates.

eLALME (electronic version of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, 2013) Online edition of A Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English, by Angus McIntosh, M.L. Samuels and Michael Benskin, published in 1986 by Aberdeen University Press, and revised and updated by Michael Benskin and Margaret Laing. For the materials and methodology used in the original edition, click here for the Original Atlas Introduction.

The Middle English Dictionary (2001) Online version of the recently-completed MED.

A Concise Dictionary of Middle English, from A.D. 1150 to 1580 Scanned version of the dictionary published by A. L. Mayhew and Walter W. Skeat in 1888.

OneLook Dictionary Search Simultaneously searches almost six million words in 963 dictionaries, including a number of foreign languages (but not Latin). Includes a “reverse dictionary” that allows the searcher to describe a concept, and then offers a list of words or phrases related to that concept. In English.

Ian Lancashire (ed.), Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME) Searchable database of dictionaries and other lexical materials dating from 1480 to 1702. This project is the successor to the Early Modern English Dictionaries Database (EMEDD).

Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (1879) A searchable version of the famous Classical Latin dictionary. Click here for an English-to-Latin version.

Du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (Latin and French, 1883-7) Ten-volume, nineteenth-century Latin-French edition of the magnificent lexicon originally published in Latin by Charles du Fresne, sieur Du Cange (d. 1688). Searchable online version produced by France’s École nationale des chartes.

J. F. Niermeyer, Medieval Latin Lexicon (Latin, French, and English, 1976) Comprehensive dictionary of medieval Latin, originally published (as Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus) by Brill. In French and English. Subsequent printed editions of Niermeyer’s Lexicon Minus have added German to the languages in which all definitions are given.

Dictionnaire Latin-Français More than 46,000 entries. In Latin and French.

Medieval Latin Dictionary from Danish Sources Searchable wordlist, from a Web site called Saxo Grammaticus. The actual title reads: Vademecum in opus Saxonis et alia opera Danica compendium ex indice verborum. In Latin.

Anglo-Norman Dictionary A revised and expanded version of the printed edition published by the Anglo-Norman Text Society (1977-92). Made available through the Anglo-Norman On-Line Hub, which also provides access to Anglo-Norman source texts and related articles.

The Lexis of Cloth and Clothing in Britain, c. 700-1450 (various medieval languages of Britain, 2006-present) Valuable analytical corpus of medieval dress and textiles terminology of the British Isles in the form of a searchable database. Based at the University of Manchester.

Lexique d’ancien français Online dictionary, compiled by Douglas C. Walker.

REFLEX (Research in Early French Lexicography) Online collection of dictionaries compiled in France before 1500.

Dictionnaires d’autrefois Online editions of French dictionaries of the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.

Jean Nicot, Thresor de la langue francoyse, tant ancienne que moderne (French, 1606) An early French dictionary, searchable by headword.

Mittelhochdeutsche Wörterbücher Online Searchable online composite version of three dictionaries of Middle High German, together with an extra finding aid that includes vocabulary from religious and other texts not consulted by the dictionary editors. In German.